John’s work focuses on creating thick cuts of meat, like steaks and chicken fillets. Tissue engineers have long struggled to produce large tissues—like cuts of cultured meat—thicker than a millimeter (think: a credit card). This is because they lack the tools to deliver nutrients deep into tissues. John is designing bioreactors that use vessels to deliver nutrients and oxygen to large muscle structures, much like how the heart pumps blood through vessels.


John Yuen and Natalie Rubio in a research lab

John and Natalie in the lab 😷🤓

3D muscle construct

3D muscle construct

hydrogel test

John testing out a hydrogel, which he is using as a microscopic scaffold on which to grow meat cells in 3D 💧🥩💧🥩

blood vessels on a hydrogel scaffold

Early progress growing blood vessel cells on a 3D hydrogel scaffold!
Blue: DAPI
Red: CD31
Green: Phalloidin